Our base powders contain most of the essential ingredients required as a basis for developing your final infant, follow-on and young child formulas. The proteins provide (non-)essential amino acids, the so-called building blocks of protein, needed for healthy growth and development 111Nutten, S. (2016). Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition. Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series. https://doi.org/10.1159/000442697 . Energy is provided by specific fat blends, which can contribute to an optimal fat composition and structure. Our Essential® base powders contain only the natural milk sugar lactose. When lactose is not fully digested, it reaches the ileum, where it supports the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. A clinical trial has shown that the addition of lactose to infant formula significantly increased the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli 40Francavilla, R., Calasso, M., Calace, L., Siragusa, S., Ndagijimana, M., Vernocchi, P., Brunetti, L., Mancino, G., Tedeschi, G., Guerzoni, E., Indrio, F., Laghi, L., Miniello, V. L., Gobbetti, M., & De Angelis, M. (2012). Effect of lactose on gut microbiota and metabolome of infants with cow’s milk allergy. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01286.x . Alongside macronutrients, our base powders contain micronutrients such as vitamin A, B6, B12, C and D, calcium, selenium, phosphorus, iodine and choline.