2’-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL) is the most abundant oligosaccharide (HMO) found in human milk¹Scientific research in recent years has unveiled a range of health benefits of 2’-FL of which the most pronounced are a reduction of bacterial and viral infections²⁺³, and stimulation of the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria in the gut. 


  • Most abundant HMO in human milk

  • Stimulates growth of Bifidobacteria 

  • May reduce infection risk

The concentration of 2’-FL found in human milk varies between individuals, typically ranging between 2 and 4 g/l¹

Primarily, preclinical research has shown 2’-FL to reduce the risk of infections²⁺³ and to stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria⁴ in the gut. In addition, emerging preclinical and human association studies have also shown that 2’-FL may enhance gut barrier function⁵⁺⁶; affect brain development, cognition and learning⁷⁻⁹ and may reduce the risk of allergy development¹⁰⁺¹¹. Recent clinical studies have shown that addition of 2’-FL to infant formula is safe and well tolerated by healthy infants¹²⁻¹⁴ as well as infants with cow’s milk allergy¹⁵⁺¹⁶. First efficacy outcomes from safety studies in infants suggest that 2’-FL can contribute to reducing the risk of respiratory tract infections¹³
 and can have immunomodulatory activity¹⁷.

Aequival® 2’-FL is structurally identical to the oligosaccharide 2’-FL that is found in human milk. The product is a non-GMO ingredient produced with fermentation technology using lactose as a substrate.


1. Chaturvedi, P. et al. Fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides vary between individuals
and over the course of lactation. Glycobiology 11, 365–72 (2001).
2. Morrow, A. L. et al. Human milk oligosaccharides are associated with protection
against diarrhea in breast-fed infants. J. Pediatr. 145, 297–303 (2004).
3. Weichert, S. et al. Bioengineered 2’-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose inhibit the
adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric pathogens to human intestinal and
respiratory cell lines. Nutr. Res. 33, 831–8 (2013).
4. Yu, Z.-T., Chen, C. & Newburg, D. S. Utilization of major fucosylated and sialylated
human milk oligosaccharides by isolated human gut microbes. Glycobiology 23, 1281–92
5. Natividad, J., Rytz, A., Keddani, S., Bergonzelli, G. & Garcia-Rodenas, C. Blends of Human Milk Oligosaccharides Confer Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Protection In Vitro. Nutrients 12, 3047 (2020).
6. Šuligoj, T. et al. Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides on the Adult Gut Microbiota and Barrier Function. Nutrients 12, 1–21 (2020).
7. Vazquez, E. et al. Dietary 2’-Fucosyllactose Enhances Operant Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation via Gut-Brain Communication through the Vagus Nerve in Rodents. PLoS One 11, e0166070 (2016).
8. Oliveros, E. et al. Oral Supplementation of 2’-fucosyllactose during lactation improves memory and learning in rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 31, 20–27 (2016).
9. Vázquez, E. et al. Effects of a human milk oligosaccharide, 2’-fucosyllactose, on hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning capabilities in rodents. J. Nutr. Biochem. 26, 455–65 (2015).
10. Castillo-Courtade, L. et al. Attenuation of food allergy symptoms following treatment with human milk oligosaccharides in a mouse model. Allergy 70, 1091–1102 (2015).
11. Sprenger, N. et al. FUT2-dependent breast milk oligosaccharides and allergy at 2 and 5 years of age in infants with high hereditary allergy risk. Eur. J. Nutr. 56, 1293–1301 (2016).
12. Marriage, B. J., Buck, R. H., Goehring, K. C., Oliver, J. S. & Williams, J. A. Infants Fed a Lower Calorie Formula With 2’FL Show Growth and 2’FL Uptake Like Breast-Fed Infants. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 61, 649–58 (2015).
13. Puccio, G. et al. Effects of Infant Formula with Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial. JPGN 64, 624–631 (2017).
14. Vandenplas, Y. et al. A partly fermented infant formula with postbiotics including 3′-GL, specific oligosaccharides, 2′-FL, and milk fat supports adequate growth, is safe and well-tolerated in healthy term infants: A double-blind, randomised, controlled, multi-country trial. Nutrients 12, 1–17 (2020).
15. Nowak-Wegrzyn, A., Czerkies, L., Reyes, K., Collins, B. & Heine, R. G. Confirmed Hypoallergenicity of a Novel Whey-Based Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula Containing Two Human Milk Oligosaccharides. Nutrients 11, 1–10 (2019).
16. Ramirez-Farias, C., Baggs, G. E. & Marriage, B. J. Growth, Tolerance, and Compliance of Infants Fed an Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula with Added 2’-FL Fucosyllactose (2’-FL) Human Milk Oligosaccharide. Nutrients 13, E186 (2021).
17. Goehring, K. C. et al. Similar to Those Who Are Breastfed , Infants Fed a Formula Containing 2’-Fucosyllactose Have Lower Inflammatory Cytokines in a Randomized. J Nutr 146, 2559–2566 (2016).

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