Human Milk Oligosaccharides

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are non-digestible carbohydrates and are the third most abundant component in human milk after lactose and fat. More than 200 different varieties have currently been identified in human milk1, of which 2’-FL is the most prevalent.


Research has shown 2’-FL to have a number of important functions, the two most important of which are the bifidogenic effect4-5 and anti-pathogenic effects 2-3. Additional benefits described are reducing the risk of allergy6-7, anti-inflammatory effects9, affecting brain development10-11, affecting gut maturation and gut barrier function8. Any potential benefit for consumers should not be considered a health claim, but may be used in the development of potential health claims in strict compliance with local legal requirements.


The first HMO FrieslandCampina Ingredients offers is Aequival® 2’-FL. Aequival® 2′-FL is structurally identical to the 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) component naturally present in human milk. 2′-FL is the most prevalent human milk oligosaccharide. As there are more than 200 different varieties of HMOs, FrieslandCampina Ingredients is developing a range of HMOs that will be commercially available in the foreseeable future.

Product Range

Dry Matter (dm) 2'-Fucosyllactose on dm Other Carbohydrates on dm Protein Sulphated Ash Moisture
Aequival®2′-FL 96% 94% 6% <0.01% <0.2% 4%

The innovation of infant nutrition

The story behind the development of Aequival® 2′-FL. Watch the mini documentary to discover this innovation journey.






    1. German, J. B., Freeman, S. L., Lebrilla, C. B. & Mills, D. a. Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Evolution, Structures and Bioselectivity as Substrates for Intestinal Bacteria. Nestle Nutr Work. Ser Pediatr Progr. 62, 205–222 (2008).
    2. Morrow, A. L. et al. Human milk oligosaccharides are associated with protection against diarrhea in breast-fed infants. J. Pediatr. 145, 297–303 (2004).
    3. Triantis, V. Human milk oligosaccharides block infection of commonly circulating human rotaviruses in an in vitro model. FASEB posters (2015).
    4. Yu, Z. T. et al. The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota. Glycobiology 23, 169–177 (2013).
    5. Harmsen, H. et al. Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr2 30, 61–67 (2000).
    6. Castillo-Courtade, L. et al. Attenuation of food allergy symptoms following treatment with human milk oligosaccharides in a mouse model. Allergy Eur. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 70, 1091–1102 (2015).
    7. Sprenger, N. et al. FUT2-dependent breast milk oligosaccharides and allergy at 2 and 5 years of age in infants with high hereditary allergy risk. Eur. J. Nutr. Epub, (2016).
    8. Holscher, H. D., Davis, S. R. & Tappenden, K. A. Human milk oligosaccharides influence maturation of human intestinal Caco-2Bbe and HT-29 cell lines. J. Nutr. 144, 586–91 (2014).
    9. Autran, C. A., Schoterman, M. H. C., Jantscher-Krenn, E., Kamerling, J. P. & Bode, L. Sialylated galacto-oligosaccharides and 2’-fucosyllactose reduce necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats. Br. J. Nutr. 116, 294–299 (2016).
    10. Vázquez, E. et al. Effects of a human milk oligosaccharide, 2’-fucosyllactose, on hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning capabilities in rodents. J. Nutr. Biochem. 26, 455–65 (2015).
    11. Oliveros, E. et al. Oral Supplementation of 2’-fucosyllactose during lactation improves memory and learning in rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 31, 20–27 (2016).

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