LNT is our newest member of the oligosaccharide portfolio. According to our Global Parental Survey, conducted in 2020 by Innova and RFC, immunity and gut health are the most appealing propositions for parents. Together with 2’-FL and GOS, we’re positioned to explore the benefits of combining oligosaccharides to support immunity and gut health in early life.

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LNT has been shown to inhibit group B streptococcus and Entamoeba histolytica and stimulate the growth of bifidobacterial strains in vitro. Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) is the most abundant neutral non-fucosylated human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)¹. Findings from preclinical science suggest that LNT can contribute to enhancing Bifidobacteria in the gut² and reducing infections with specific pathogens³⁻⁵.

The concentration of LNT found in human milk varies, depending on maternal genetics and lactation stage. Typically, concentrations of LNT between 0.2 and 1.6 g/l are reported in mature human milk, with an average of 0.74 g/l¹. LNT is the most abundant representative of the category of neutral non-fucosylated HMOs.

Preclinical science has shown that LNT can stimulate the growth of infant-specific Bifidobacteria species in the gut microbiota². Furthermore, LNT has been shown to have some specific anti-pathogenic activity; it can inhibit growth and biofilm formation of group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)³⁺⁴ and reduce attachment and infectivity of the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Aequival® LNT is structurally identical to the oligosaccharide LNT that is found in human milk. The product is a non-GMO ingredient produced with fermentation technology using lactose as a substrate. Currently, Aequival® LNT is in the final stages of development


1. Soyyilmaz, B. et al. The mean of milk: A review of human milk oligosaccharide concentrations throughout lactation. Nutrients 13, 1–22 (2021).
2. Asakuma, S. et al. Physiology of consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 34583–34592 (2011).
3. Lin, A. E. et al. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus. J. Biol. Chem. 292, 11243–11249 (2017).
4. Craft, K. M., Thomas, H. C. & Townsend, S. Sialylated Variants of Lacto-N-Tetraose Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity Against Group B Streptococcus. Org. Biomol. Chem. 17, 1893–1900 (2019).
5. Jantscher-Krenn, E. et al. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce Entamoeba histolytica attachment and cytotoxicity in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 108, 1839–1846 (2012).

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