Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) is the most abundant neutral non-fucosylated human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)¹. Findings from preclinical science suggest that LNT can contribute to enhancing Bifidobacteria in the gut² and reducing infections with specific pathogens³⁻⁵.


  • Enhancing Bifidobacteria in the gut (²)
  • Reducing infections with specific pathagens (³⁻⁵)

The concentration of LNT found in human milk varies, depending on maternal genetics and lactation stage. Typically, concentrations of LNT between 0.2 and 1.6 g/l are reported in mature human milk, with an average of 0.74 g/l¹. LNT is the most abundant representative of the category of neutral non-fucosylated HMOs.

Preclinical science has shown that LNT can stimulate the growth of infant-specific Bifidobacteria species in the gut microbiota². Furthermore, LNT has been shown to have some specific anti-pathogenic activity; it can inhibit growth and biofilm formation of group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)³⁺⁴ and reduce attachment and infectivity of the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Aequival® LNT is structurally identical to the oligosaccharide LNT that is found in human milk. The product is a non-GMO ingredient produced with fermentation technology using lactose as a substrate. Currently, Aequival® LNT is in the final stages of development


1. Soyyilmaz, B. et al. The mean of milk: A review of human milk oligosaccharide concentrations throughout lactation. Nutrients 13, 1–22 (2021).
2. Asakuma, S. et al. Physiology of consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 34583–34592 (2011).
3. Lin, A. E. et al. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus. J. Biol. Chem. 292, 11243–11249 (2017).
4. Craft, K. M., Thomas, H. C. & Townsend, S. Sialylated Variants of Lacto-N-Tetraose Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity Against Group B Streptococcus. Org. Biomol. Chem. 17, 1893–1900 (2019).
5. Jantscher-Krenn, E. et al. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce Entamoeba histolytica attachment and cytotoxicity in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 108, 1839–1846 (2012).

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