Ingredient Index

Human Milk Oligosaccharides

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex carbohydrates and represent the third largest component in human milk 138Soyyilmaz, B., Mikš, M. H., Röhrig, C. H., Matwiejuk, M., Meszaros‐matwiejuk, A., & Vigsnæs, L. K. (2021). The mean of milk: A review of human milk oligosaccharide concentrations throughout lactation. Nutrients, 13(8), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082737. Over 200 different HMO structures have been identified so far 46German, J., Freeman, S., Lebrilla, C., & Mills, D. (2008). Human milk oligosaccharides: Evolution, structures and bioselectivity as substrates for intestinal bacteria. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series: Pediatric Program. https://doi.org/10.1159/000146322, and scientific substantiation of the wide range of benefits they can bring is rapidly expanding. As one of the leaders in the oligosaccharide ingredients space for over two decades already, we offer a growing portfolio of HMOs* for early life nutrition applications.

HMOs are categorised into three subgroups: non-fucosylated neutral, fucosylated neutral and acidic HMOs 46German, J., Freeman, S., Lebrilla, C., & Mills, D. (2008). Human milk oligosaccharides: Evolution, structures and bioselectivity as substrates for intestinal bacteria. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series: Pediatric Program. https://doi.org/10.1159/000146322. Our portfolio covers a variety of HMOs, reflecting a wide spectrum of structures, abundance in human milk and functionality. We believe that a combination of HMOs can confer diverse health benefits in early life.

Aequival®2′-FL

  • Most abundant HMO in human milk

  • Stimulates growth of Bifidobacteria 

  • May reduce infection risk

Dry matter (%)
96
Purity on dry matter (%)
94
Other carbohydrates on dry matter (%)
6
Certifications
Kosher, Halal

Aequival®LNT

  • Neutral non-fucosylated HMO

  • Stimulates growth of Bifidobacteria 

  • Reduced infectivity in vitro

Dry matter (%)
96
Purity on dry matter (%)
83
Other carbohydrates on dry matter (%)
13
Certifications
Kosher, Halal

Aequival® 3'-SL

  • Acidic HMO containing sialic acid 

  • Sialic acid supports brain development

  • Antipathogenic effects in vitro

Dry matter (%)
Pending
Purity on dry matter (%)
Pending
Other carbohydrates on dry matter (%)
Pending
Certifications
Kosher, Halal
What are HMOs?

After lactose and fat, HMOs are the third largest component of human milk solids, at 8 percent 138Soyyilmaz, B., Mikš, M. H., Röhrig, C. H., Matwiejuk, M., Meszaros‐matwiejuk, A., & Vigsnæs, L. K. (2021). The mean of milk: A review of human milk oligosaccharide concentrations throughout lactation. Nutrients, 13(8), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082737. HMOs are non-digestible carbohydrates that help provide the optimum conditions for beneficial bacteria to thrive in the infant gut and play an important role in supporting the immune system and contributing to brain development 16Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology. Published online 2012. doi:10.1093/glycob/cws074 15Bode, L., Kuhn, L., Kim, H.-Y., Hsiao, L., Nissan, C., Sinkala, M., Kankasa, C., Mwiya, M., Thea, D. M., & Aldrovandi, G. M. (2012). Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(4), 831–839. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.039503 14Bode, L., & Jantscher-Krenn, E. (2012). Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides. Advances in Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.001404. So far, more than 200 different HMOs have been identified at various concentrations and combinations in breast milk 46German, J., Freeman, S., Lebrilla, C., & Mills, D. (2008). Human milk oligosaccharides: Evolution, structures and bioselectivity as substrates for intestinal bacteria. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series: Pediatric Program. https://doi.org/10.1159/000146322. These include 2’-FL, 3’-SL and LNT, each of which is expected to have its own potential benefits for infant health.

What are the health benefits of HMOs? 

Research shows that HMOs have an important role to play by supporting infant health in various ways. These include influencing the gut microbiome, reducing the risk of infection and supporting the brain development of infants 16Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology. Published online 2012. doi:10.1093/glycob/cws074 15Bode, L., Kuhn, L., Kim, H.-Y., Hsiao, L., Nissan, C., Sinkala, M., Kankasa, C., Mwiya, M., Thea, D. M., & Aldrovandi, G. M. (2012). Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(4), 831–839. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.039503 14Bode, L., & Jantscher-Krenn, E. (2012). Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides. Advances in Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.001404. Different individual HMOs have been shown to have different effects 7Asakuma, S., Hatakeyama, E., Urashima, T., Yoshida, E., Katayama, T., Yamamoto, K., Kumagai, H., Ashida, H., Hirose, J., & Kitaoka, M. (2011). Physiology of consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. Journal of Biological Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.248138 14Bode, L., & Jantscher-Krenn, E. (2012). Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides. Advances in Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.001404 89Lin, A. E., Autran, C. A., Szyszka, A., Escajadillo, T., Huang, M., Godula, K., Prudden, A. R., Boons, G. J., Lewis, A. L., Doran, K. S., Nizet, V., & Bode, L. (2017). Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus. Journal of Biological Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.789974 130Salli, K., Hirvonen, J., Siitonen, J., Ahonen, I., Anglenius, H., & Maukonen, J. (2021). Selective Utilization of the Human Milk Oligosaccharides 2′-Fucosyllactose, 3-Fucosyllactose, and Difucosyllactose by Various Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06041 156Watson, D., O’Connell Motherway, M., Schoterman, M. H. C., van Neerven, R. J. J., Nauta, A., & Van Sinderen, D. (2013). Selective carbohydrate utilization by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.12105 170Yu, Z. T., Chen, C., Kling, D. E., Liu, B., McCoy, J. M., Merighi, M., Heidtman, M., & Newburg, D. S. (2013). The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota. Glycobiology. https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cws138 , so they may complement each other in supporting infant health.

What are the opportunities of HMOs in combination with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)?

At FrieslandCampina Ingredients, we believe that delivering a larger variety of non-digestible oligosaccharides (e.g. a combination of GOS and HMOs) can be of key importance for the establishment of the gut microbiota and its metabolism, thereby feeding into many different health aspects in early life and beyond. As a unique provider of both GOS and HMO solutions, we can offer a wider diversity of structures to bring the concept of gut health to the next level.

Product substantiation and benefits Aequival® 2′-FL
Product substantiation and benefits Aequival® LNT
Product substantiation and benefits Aequival® 3'-SL
Why choose HMOs from FrieslandCampina Ingredients? 

With over 75 years of expertise in early life nutrition, we offer an industry-leading portfolio of oligosaccharides, along with a complete offering of nutritional ingredients for infant and young child milk formulas. Our fully owned and scalable HMO supply chain ensures the highest quality standards for dry-blend infant formula and has the flexibility to meet your needs as they evolve. We support leading global infant milk formula brands with our strong analytical expertise, helping to develop and validate analytical methods to ensure the right blend of HMOs and other ingredients for your product.

* Not from human milk

Our Health Benefits

Want to know more about the benefits of HMOs?

FrieslandCampina Ingredients provides a growing portfolio of high-quality HMO ingredients that can support gut health, immune health and cognitive function in early life. We’re proud to play a global leadership role in the infant milk formula industry, backed by over 75 years of experience in manufacturing and research in early life nutrition. Get in touch for personalised advice on choosing the right HMO solution for your needs.

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